VoIP is a mind-boggling transmission technology supporting voice communication over internet. VoIP is the acronym of Voice over Internet Protocol. The protocol used here is Internet protocol (IP) by which data is sent from one computer to another computer. Each node on the internet is identified by its unique IP address, with the help of which data packet is sent or received between the nodes. IP is a connectionless protocol, which means that there is no dedicated path between the nodes while sending IP packets. The data packets are treated independently.

Most commonly used IP version is IP4. IP6 is also getting wide spread which supports longer IP addresses .IP telephony is a term which is tantamount with VoIP. In this, the analog voice signal is converted into digital data which is then compressed into IP packet and sent through the internet to the destination. Once the packet is got, it is decompressed and converted appropriately.

VoIP adopts session control protocols to start up and end down call sessions. It also uses a wide range of codec which encodes or decodes the voice data. Codec may be narrowband or broadband. In addition to IP, VoIP brings into play real time protocols to make sure that the packets are delivered in time.

The major advantage of using VoIP is its diminutive cost consumption. The communication and infrastructure cost is less as it routes voice data over pre-existing data networks avoiding the need for new separate network. If you have best broadband

connection at both ends, you can make phone calls all over world for gratis. Even if you want to make pc-phone connection, some minimum amount will be charged which is much lesser than that of customary phone service. The thing is that you can make international calls with low rates excluding connection costs. It is also possible to sign up with a VoIP service provider and pay them a fixed amount of money to make unlimited calls covering a certain geographical area. There is a reason which helps them providing more facilities at less cost is the way of billing. The telephone companies charge at the rate per unit time but, VoIP charges at the rate per amount of data transferred, normally in megabytes without considering time.

VoIP has come with startling, advanced features like automatic redialing , conference calls, call waiting, call forwarding, voice mail, three way calling, caller id etc. Other telephone services make extra charges for these provisions unlike VoIP service. There is also a leeway of sending documents, pictures etc. at the time of your call. The next thing that is propitious about VoIP is its portability. Wherever you go, you can make phone calls with your cut-price VoIP service, unless you have broad-band connection over there. By signing into your VoIP account, you can make even international calls, provided you should have your VoIP phones or phone adapters called analog terminal adapters which are small and economical. By plugging them into your broadband connection you can handle calls.

Telephones are analog devices which carry the signals through the phone lines and through the lines they receive direct current which gives power to handsets. VoIP telephone adapters are connected to routers depending on power supply. But, VoIP service providers make use of battery-backed power supplies to guarantee uninterrupted phone service.

Fixed telephone line certifies a complete relationship between a telephone number and its physical location. But, IP supports dynamic connections to ensure mobility. Therefore emergency calls cannot be routed to the hard by switching station. So, a database is maintained linking the physical address and the respective number to support emergency calls and the method is said to be VoIP Enhanced 911. The information provided by this method is effective as long as the subscriber is assiduous in maintaining his emergency address. Various encryption schemes are possible to bestow security in VoIP services but they are limited in case of normal telephone services.

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